Sophia Junior College
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Junior College



You have probably never studied Sociology till date but in Sophia Jr. College, Sociology is offered as a compulsory subject, in the Arts stream. You might be wondering, “What is Sociology all about?

Consider these questions – Why do we follow customs and rules? What is the purpose of 'secret ballot'? How have mobile phones impacted our lives? How do superstitions arise? Is there gender discrimination within family? Why do we need to protect the rights of Transgender persons, Persons with Disabilities, Notified Tribes, Scheduled Castes? What is ‘social deviance’? What is the role of 'conflict' in transforming society? What prevents employees from voicing their frank views with their employers? How is globalization affecting small-scale farmers and small businesses? How do malls and advertising influence consumer behaviour? How do television serials reflect stereotypes? What is 'gender policing'? Is the notion of ‘development’ that which includes all people or only the so-called elite of a given society? What does the term ‘inclusivity’ mean, and imply? 

The subject of Sociology uses a scientific approach to study human social relationships, social interactions, changes and challenges of human society; it deals with these kinds of questions and concerns. The discipline emerged against the backdrop of various revolutions – commercial, industrial, French, scientific. Social movements like the Human Rights movement, LGBT movements, Green movements, Rationality movements have impacted human society. Processes like globalization, marketization, digitalization, westernization and understandings of secularism, patriotism, social justice, equality, also shape human lives.

Sociology has strong theoretical foundations that try to explain human behaviour from different perspectives. There is also an applied dimension – for example, when understanding the impact of religious beliefs on sexuality; the impact of industrialization on climate change; understanding abuse, representation, policy-making, positive discrimination, etc.

The subject encourages learners to think imaginatively, and critically; to perceive the world - its people and their cultures through a wider prism – and thus develop one’s “sociological imagination.” Some fields in Sociology include Urban Sociology, Rural Sociology, Sociology of Social Movements, Sociology of Music, Sociology of Gender, Sociology of Occupations, Dalit Sociology, Sociology of Religion, Visual Sociology, Tribal Sociology, Sociology of Science, etc.

The Higher Secondary Certificate (HSC) is a two-year course that is a part of the 4-year ‘Secondary stage’ of education under the National Education Policy, 2020.

Standard XI

This introductory course covers several basic sociological terms like: society, community, status, role, social group, culture, social norms, socialization, social stratification, social institution and social change. It also includes an overview of contributions of Western thinkers - Auguste Comte, Emile Durkheim & Karl Marx, and Indian sociologists – Dr. G. S. Ghurye, Dr. M. N. Srinivas, and Dr. Iravati Karve.

Standard XII

This course helps one apply sociological concepts that have been grasped in Std. XI, to develop a multi-layered understanding of Indian society, that is, its  people, cultures, diversities (based on language, gender, sexuality, race, religion, class, region), processes of social change, social movements related to women, workers, farmers, and the environment, and specific social problems of our society - ageing, unemployment, addiction, farmer suicide, domestic violence.


The HSC Board Examination which is taken at the end of Standard XII, and though learning is meant to be cumulative, the Std. XII Written Examination is based on the Std. XII Sociology Syllabus. There are two prescribed Sociology Textbooks, both of which are published by ‘Balbharati’, Pune. Learners are encouraged to use the textbook as a framework for exploring the subject beyond its boundaries and the syllabi.

The Evaluation Scheme for HSC (Sociology) is as follows:

Sr. No.




Written Theory Examination (3 hours)

80 marks


Application Based Test (ABT) (1 hour)

20 marks



100 marks


At Sophia, we make a concerted effort to encourage independence of thought and help learners construct knowledge through varied curricular experiences. Our approach to learning Sociology resonates with the National Education Policy, 2020, and the National Curriculum Framework for School Education (NCF-SE), 2023 in many respects. Getting away from mindless rote-learning is encouraged. Value is given to the attainment of conceptual clarity, development of critical thinking, creative thinking, inclusivity and applying knowledge for the purpose of problem-solving and its relation to real-life situations. The Sociology examination provides plenty of scope for application-based responses from learners. We hope you will find the learning experience fun and motivating; may it push you to think beyond self-imposed limits, if any.

Why is it useful to study Sociology? The study of Sociology can give you insights which will help you understand the world in which you live; to understand your everyday life, and challenges that you may confront as a member of society. It has the potential to help you  understand human relationships with greater sensitivity. Typically, one can pursue a career as a Sociology Teacher in School, or in Higher Education. Very few people pursue a full-time career in Sociological research. Many people choose Sociology as a subject for State or Central Service Examinations e.g. UPSC, MPSC. Sociology graduates may also diversify to other related fields after graduating in Sociology, such as, law, management, journalism, hospital administration, welfare services, urban planning, design, social work, rural or tribal community work. Today, it is important to acquire a sound theoretical foundation combined with practical 21st-century skills and internship experience in a world that is increasingly competitive.

Best wishes to you as you begin your journey with Sociology!


Dr. Ivan John

PhD (Soc) MPhil (Soc) MPhil (Edu) MEd MA PGDHE PGDET PGDSLM LTCL (Piano Performance) AMusTCL (Theoretical Music) DipABRSM (Piano Teaching) ATCL (Instrumental Teaching) LLCM(TD)


Dr. Ivan John began his career as a Sociology Teacher in the historic Wilson College and then joined Sophia Jr. College in June 1993. He has been a Member of the Board of Studies in Sociology since 2013, formerly with the Maharashtra State Board of Secondary & Higher Secondary Education, Pune and later, with ‘Balbharati’ i.e. Maharashtra State Bureau of Textbook Production and Curriculum Research, Pune. He is also invited as Subject Expert in Sociology for the Maharashtra State Council for Education, Research and Training (SCERT), Pune. He was Visiting Faculty in the Department of Education at Sophia College for seven years.

In 2019 he was awarded a PhD in Sociology, for his thesis on the ‘Gay Movement with reference to Mumbai’, by Tilak Maharashtra Vidyapeeth, Pune. Presently, he is doing a PhD in Education at Smt. Kapila Khandwala College of Education, Mumbai. His present research is on Gender Inclusion and Comprehensive Sexuality Education in Jr. Colleges in Mumbai. In 2004 he obtained the MPhil degree in Education, for his dissertation on ‘Stress, Burnout and Teaching Effectiveness among Higher Secondary Teachers in Mumbai’. In 2007 he obtained an MPhil degree in Sociology for his study on ‘Attitude of Youth towards Homosexuality’. He passed the SET and NET in Sociology in 1998, and NET in Education in 2012.

His research and other interests include: Equality Rights, Sexual and Gender minorities, Gender Diversity & Inclusion, LGBTQAI+ concerns, Learner-centeredness in Education and Music Theory. He has published 9 books related to Higher Secondary courses mostly in Sociology, presented 13 papers, published 7 papers, conducted many workshops/webinars on topics like Gender sensitization, Sexuality education, and Music education. He has been invited as Panelist on Queer/LGBT+ issues and Gender Inclusive Education, and as a Resource Person for Institutional Gender Audit.

Under the auspices of the World Music & Dance Club of Sophia College for Women (Empowered Autonomous), he conducts Add-on Certificate Courses in ‘Music Theory’.

At Sophia College, he continues to be Staff Advisor of the World Music & Dance Club (WMDC), Students’ Social Reform Initiative (SSRI) & Sophia Queer Collective (SQC). He is a Member of the Gender Audit Committee and the Internal Complaints Committee (Sexual Harassment) at Sophia.

Ivan is also a trained musician. He was awarded a Licentiate of Trinity College of Music, London (LTCL) diploma in Piano Performance in 1994. Subsequently, he obtained the Associate Diploma (AMusTCL) in Theoretical Music and several Teaching diplomas such as DipABRSM in Piano Teaching, ATCL in Instrumental Teaching with Distinction, and the London College of Music   Teaching Diploma (LLCM) with Honours. He has entered candidates for external graded music examinations of Trinity College London, The Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music, London, and London College of Music in Pianoforte, Electronic Keyboard, Practical Musicianship and Theory of Music for over three decades.

Ms Rochelle Pereira



Subjects of Interest include: Roles and Challenges of Youth in the present technological society, Women's  Education, Special Education.

Enjoyed doing short-term courses in Counselling; Mentor-Mentee programmes, Public Speaking and Personality Development, Yoga and Meditation, MS- ACIT Computer Course, travelling and studying different cultural practices. She was on the Textbook Review Committee for the Standard XII Sociology Textbook in 2013.

Subject-related interactive sessions through presentations, discussions,  educational videos are used for academic learning. They have been a part of her academic objectives.